Lützow took part in the Battle of the Barents Sea in December 1942, a failed attempt to destroy a convoy. By mid 1906 work on the ship was finished. The five Deutschland-class battleships were the last pre-dreadnoughts built by the German Navy. C/01 model, which allowed elevation to 30° and depression to −5°. [8] The ship was launched on 19 May 1931; at her launching, she was christened by German Chancellor Heinrich Brüning. "[10] In May 1928, the elections were concluded and enough of a majority in favor of the new ships was elected; this included twelve seats won by Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party. 1/1800th scale Deutschland Class Battleship model. Schleswig-Holstein Battleship 1935 Trumpeter 1:350 05354 . Lützow was raised and sunk as a target by the Soviet Navy and Admiral Scheer was partially broken up in situ, with the remainder of the hulk buried beneath rubble. This battleship / Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class “Panzerschiff”, nicknamed a “pocket battleship” by the British. They ended their careers bombarding advancing Soviet forces on the Eastern Front; both ships were destroyed by British bombers in the final weeks of the war. [24], Serious political opposition to the ships continued after the authorization for Deutschland, and a political crisis over the second ship, Admiral Scheer, was averted only after the Social Democrats abstained from voting. Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger; Kolesnik, Eugene M., eds (1979). These forces included four aircraft carriers, two battleships, and one battlecruiser. By this time, only Schlesien and Schleswig-Holstein were still operating as warships; the four Braunschweig-class ships had been disposed of or converted into auxiliary ships. [27] Schlesien provided fire support for German troops in the vicinity of Gotenhafen between 15 and 21 March 1945. Deutschland and her sisters carried a number of smaller vessels, including two picket boats, one admiral's barge, two launches, one pinnace, two cutters, two yawls, and two dinghies. Muzzle velocity for both types of shells was 820 m/s (2,690 f/s). The Navy was permitted a force of six pre-dreadnought battleships and six light cruisers; the ships could not be replaced until they were twenty years old. Both ships were damaged in the course of their deployment to Norway and eventually returned to Germany for repairs. She was part of the abortive attack on Convoy PQ 17 with the battleship Tirpitz; the operation was broken off after surprise was lost. [8], The ships' main armored belt was 80 mm (3.1 in) thick amidships and reduced to 60 mm (2.4 in) on either end of the central citadel. On Admiral Graf Spee, it was extended one deck higher. [8], The three Deutschland-class ships were armed with a main battery of six 28 cm SK C/28 guns mounted in two triple turrets, one on either end of the superstructure. The Reichsmarine offered to halt construction on the first ship in exchange for admittance to the Washington Treaty with a ratio of 125,000 long tons (127,000 t) to Britain's allotment of 525,000 long tons (533,000 t) of capital ship tonnage. They were made obsolete before they were even completed by the launch of the revolutionary Royal Navy battleship HMS Dreadnought in 1906. The armored deck in Deutschland and Admiral Scheer did not extend over the entire width of the ship due to weight; this matter was rectified in Admiral Graf Spee. [8], Deutschland could carry up to 2,750 t (2,710 long tons) of fuel oil, which provided a maximum range of 17,400 nautical miles (32,200 km; 20,000 mi) at a speed of 13 knots (24 km/h; 15 mph). Five were emplaced in the top deck and two one deck higher in the superstructure on either side. While en route, she was torpedoed by a British submarine and seriously damaged. [11] She was launched on 20 November 1904; once she left the stocks fitting out work commenced. [26] At the outbreak of World War II, she remained in port for a periodic refit. Deutschland had a beam of 20.69 m (67 ft 11 in), Admiral Scheer's beam was 21.34 m (70 ft 0 in), while Admiral Graf Spee's was 21.65 m (71 ft 0 in). [34] In April, Schlesien was moved to Swinemünde to restock her ammunition supply as well as evacuate 1,000 wounded soldiers from the front. The ships weighed in at 13,200 tons standard, and 14,218 tons under full load. She was decommissioned in March 1927 when Schlesien returned to active service. World War 1 Naval Combat. [17] The ships' forward conning tower had 150 mm (5.9 in) thick sides with a 50 mm (2.0 in) thick roof, while the aft conning tower was less well protected, with 50 mm thick sides and a 20 mm (0.79 in) thick roof. The guns had an arc of train of 160°. [41] During the raiding mission, she sank 113,223 gross register tons (GRT) of shipping,[42] making her the most successful capital ship surface raider of the war. Deutschland -class cruiser The Deutschland class was a series of three Panzerschiffe ("armored ships"), a form of heavily armed cruiser, built by the Reichsmarine officially in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. The torpedo detonated an ammunition magazine and destroyed the ship, killing all hands on board. The displacement of the three ships increased over the class. [7] The initial design for Deutschland, ordered as "Panzerschiff A", was prepared in 1926 and finalized by 1928. In October 1925, Hannover was moved to the North Sea station. [8] This provided the guns with a maximum range of 36,475 m (39,890 yd). Their total output was 2,160 kW for Deutschland, 2,800 kW for Admiral Scheer, and 3,360 kW for Admiral Graf Spee, all at 220 volts. The Deutschland class was a group of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine. At maximum elevation, the guns could hit targets out to 18,830 m (20,590 yd). RM Admiral Graf Spee in 1936. [4] The Deutschland-class ships' hulls were built with transverse and longitudinal steel frames. [50] Admiral Graf Spee was eventually confronted by three British cruisers off Uruguay at the Battle of the River Plate on 13 December 1939. [7] The question over whether to build the new ships was a major issue in elections, particularly with the Social Democrats, who strongly opposed the new ships and campaigned with the slogan "Food not Panzerkreuzer. [27], Admiral Graf Spee, the third and final member of the class, was also ordered by the Reichsmarine from the Kriegsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven. The four subsequent ships had a somewhat different boiler arrangement and slightly thicker armor compared to the Braunschweig-class ships. She returned to Norway to join the forces arrayed against Allied shipping to the Soviet Union. [14] In 1913, Deutschland was replaced as fleet flagship by the new dreadnought Friedrich der Grosse. Deutschland was the lead ship of her class of heavy cruisers (often termed pocket battleships) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. [18] Towards the end of the fleet battle on the evening of 31 May, the five Deutschland-class ships came to the aid of the mauled battlecruisers of the I Scouting Group. [2], The three Deutschland-class ships varied slightly in dimensions. In 1923 the German Navy adopted a new command structure and Braunschweig became flagship of the Fleet. Gröner, Erich (1990). The bow and stern were unarmored at the waterline. All three vessels served on non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War. Nevertheless, the design staff prepared another set of designs, "I/35", a heavily armored ship with a single triple turret forward, and "VIII/30", a more lightly-armored ship with a pair of twin turrets. Deutschland class ‘pocket battleship’ Posted on July 12, 2017 Lutzow (rear) and Admiral Scheer at Wilhelmshaven in 1939. Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger, eds (1980). Their metacentric height was .98 m (3.2 ft). [12], Pommern was laid down at the AG Vulcan dockyard in Stettin under the provisional name "P" in 1904. Lützow and Admiral Scheer were deployed to Norway in 1942 to join the attacks on Allied convoys to the Soviet Union. [28] Schlesien was made the flagship of the battleship squadron in January 1933. [4][b] The Allies assumed that with these limitations, only coastal defense ships similar to those operated by the Scandinavian navies could be built. From Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia Not to be confused with Deutschland-class battleship. The two sister-ships of her class, Deutschland and Admiral Scheer, were reclassified as heavy cruisers in … 1/1800th scale Deutschland-class battleship model. [15] The ships were also equipped with eight 53.3 cm (21.0 in) torpedo tubes placed in two quadruple launchers mounted on their stern. The five Deutschland class ships served together in the 2nd Battle Squadron of the High Seas Fleet (with the Braunschweig class ship Hessen). [5] After she became a training ship in 1935, Schlesien's crew consisted of 29 officers and 559 enlisted men, plus up to 214 cadets. [11] Launched on 17 December 1906, Schleswig-Holstein was completed by July 1908 and commissioned on the 6th, the last ship of the five to join the fleet. The Deutschland class were a series of five pre-dreadought battleships built for the German Navy before the first world war. The Reichsmarine therefore decided to delay ordering the ship until after the Reichstag elections in 1928. [5] Deutschland had a slightly different arrangement in the belt armor and the citadel in the superstructure. [24][37] Raised by the Soviet Navy in 1947, she was reportedly broken up for scrap over the next two years, according to Western works that did not have access to Soviet documents at the time. Likewise, the torpedo bulkheads for Deutschland and Admiral Scheer stopped at the inside of the double-bottom but in Admiral Graf Spee extended to the outer hull. She was eventually broken up in 1944–1946. The upper edge of the belt on Deutschland and Admiral Scheer was at the level of the armored deck. First World War Naval warfare including the Battles of Jutland, Coronel and the Falklands, the scuttling at Scapa Flow and warships sunk. The main battery turrets had 140 mm (5.5 in) thick faces and 85 mm (3.3 in) thick sides. Britain and the United States favored making concessions to Germany, but France refused to allow any revisions to the Treaty of Versailles. This primarily included acting as a support force for the battlecruisers that bombarded the English coast in the hopes of luring out a portion of the British fleet. She also represented Germany during the Coronation Review for King George VI in May 1937. While off Spain, she bombarded the port of Almería following the Republican attack on her sister Deutschland. [39], Admiral Scheer saw heavy service with the German Navy, including several deployments to Spain during the Spanish Civil War, to participate in non-intervention patrols. They did not meet the expected shaft-horsepower on trials, though they did exceed their design speeds. These figures are for the four later ships; In Imperial German Navy gun nomenclature, "SK" (Schnelladekanone) denotes that the gun is quick loading, while the L/40 denotes the length of the gun. [20] During the night actions, Pommern was torpedoed. In Deutschland, the citadel armor was 160 mm (6.3 in) thick, while on the other four ships the armor was 170 mm thick. In terms of warships, it limited them to vessels of 10,000 tons or less. Admiral Graf Spee and Deutschland were rearmed in 1938 and 1940, respectively, with six 10.5 cm L/65 guns, four 3.7 cm SK C/30 guns and initially ten 2 cm Flak guns—the number of 2 cm guns on Deutschland was eventually increased to 28. [8], The Deutschland-class ships were equipped with four sets of 9-cylinder, double-acting, two-stroke diesel engines built by MAN. Built between 1903 and 1908, the ships closely resembled those of the preceding Braunschweig class, though they had stronger armor protection. [3], The Reichsmarine held a conference to evaluate the designs in May 1925, though the results were inconclusive. [12] Schleswig-Holstein was ordered from the Germaniawerft dockyard under the contract name "Q." [43], Following her return to Germany, she was deployed to northern Norway to interdict shipping to the Soviet Union. Electricity was supplied by four electric generators powered by two diesel engines. They were supplied with a total of 800 rounds of ammunition, though later in their careers this was increased to 1,200 rounds. [8] The adoption of an all-diesel propulsion system was a radical innovation at the time and contributed to significant savings in weight. Of the first two designs, "I/10" was a 32-knot (59 km/h; 37 mph) cruiser armed with eight 20.5 cm (8.1 in) guns while "II/10" was a 22-knot (41 km/h; 25 mph), heavily armored ship armed with four 38 cm (15 in) guns. "[21], Deutschland was laid down at the Deutsche Werke shipyard in Kiel on 5 February 1929,[5] under the contract name Panzerschiff A, as a replacement for the old battleship Preussen. Both ships saw limited duty during World War II, which was inaugurated by the firing of Schleswig-Holstein's main guns at the Polish fortress at Westerplatte. The low stern was wet in a stern sea, and equipment stored there was frequently lost overboard. Deutschland had a 18 mm (0.71 in) thick upper deck and a main armored deck that ranged in thickness from 18–40 mm. [4] The ships' crews numbered 35 officers and 708 enlisted men. [11] She was launched on 2 December 1905 and commissioned into the fleet on 1 October 1907. [30] By 1939, both ships had been replaced in front-line service by newer ships, and were instead relegated to training duties. The ships' full load displacements were significantly higher, at 14,290 long tons (14,520 t) for Deutschland, 13,660 long tons (13,880 t) for Admiral Scheer, and 16,020 long tons (16,280 t) for Admiral Graf Spee. Design studies were considered starting in 1920, with two basic options: the Navy could build a heavily armored, slow, and small warship similar to a monitor, or a large, fast, and lightly armored vessel similar to a cruiser. The SMS Deutschland belonged to the same ship class, which were built as the last unit type ships in the German imperial area. The ships conducted patrols in the mouth of the Elbe River in the first weeks of the war while the rest of the fleet was still being mobilized. She then returned to Germany where she was renamed Lützow. The Deutschland class was a group of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine. With the commissioning of the Deutschland class, the fleet had enough battleships to form two full battle squadrons; the fleet was then reorganized into the High Seas Fleet, which saw combat during World War I. The turrets were the Drh.L. [27], After Hitler had given the order in late January 1943 for the two remaining ships to be scrapped, the possibility of instead converting them into aircraft carriers was discussed. Deutschland German battleship class, built 1903-08. The ship was partially broken up in situ, though part of the ship remains visible above the surface of the water. Damaged at the Battle of Drøbak Sound, she was recalled to Germany for repairs. The Deutschland class were actually heavily armed cruisers, but due to their heavy armament, were also known as “pocket battleships.” The Deutschland class ships were initially classified as Panzerschiffe or "armored ships", but the Kriegsmarine reclassified them as heavy cruisers in February 1940. The Navy was permitted a force of six pre-dreadnought battleships and six light cruisers; the ships could not be replaced until they were twenty years old. The design speed for all of the ships was 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph), though on trials all five ships exceeded the figure. Once the II Battle Squadron was complete, the fleet was reorganized as the Hochseeflotte (High Seas Fleet). The 1926 maneuvers informed the design staff that greater speed was desirable, and that year, a further two designs were submitted to Zenker. Deutschland and Schleswig-Holstein became barracks ships in Wilhelmshaven and Kiel, respectively. The Deutschland class was a group of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine.The class comprised Deutschland, Hannover, Pommern, Schlesien, and Schleswig-Holstein.Built between 1903 and 1908, the ships closely resembled those of the preceding Braunschweig class, though they had stronger armor protection.They were made obsolete before they were even … The class includes the ships: Deutschland (Re named Lützow), Admiral Scheer & Admiral Graf Spee. [21] The German fleet reached Wilhelmshaven by mid-day of 1 June, where the undamaged dreadnoughts of the Nassau and Helgoland classes took up defensive positions. [27] The following year, Schlesien toured South America, including a stop in Argentina in December. SMS Schleswig-Holstein Deutschland-class battleship 1939 with metal gun barrels Armo 1:700 The Deutschlands intervened and prevented the British battlecruisers under Admiral David Beatty from pursuing the German ships. Deutschland was not particularly successful on her raiding sortie, during which she sank or captured three ships. Admiral Graf Spee stored 2,500 t (2,500 long tons) of fuel, which enabled a range of 8,900 nmi (16,500 km; 10,200 mi). During the operation Schlesien remained in her training ship role, though she briefly acted as an icebreaker for U-boats. Schleswig-Holstein differed somewhat; her crew as a training ship numbered 31 officers and 565 men and up to 175 cadets. [3] Deutschland replaced Kaiser Wilhelm II as the flagship of the fleet. [7], When the particulars of the design became known by the Allies, they attempted to prevent Germany from building them. Horsepower figures for Admiral Graf Spee are not recorded, though her top speed on trials was 29.5 knots (54.6 km/h; 33.9 mph). Nazi Germany (1931) – Deutschland, Graf Spee, Scheer. [8] Her keel was laid on 1 October 1932,[5] under construction number 125. The guns fired 14.8 kg (33 lb) high-explosive shells at up to 12 rounds per minute. This included the installation of the ship's armament, completion of the interior compartments, and the finishing of the superstructure. She also conducted Operation Wunderland, a sortie into the Kara Sea. They were similar to the preceding Braunschweig-class ships—Deutschland was nearly identical, though the design was modified slightly after the lead ship was laid down. [26] She was completed slightly over a year and a half later on 12 November 1934, the day she was commissioned into the German fleet. Steering was controlled by a single rudder. The Deutschland was a group of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine. Certain elements not to scale. Deutschland Class Battleship. While en route, she was torpedoed by a British bomber, necessitating significant repairs that lasted until May 1942. Actually, they are equivalent to armoured cruisers of an exceptionally powerful type. [25] A replacement for the old battleship Lothringen, her keel was laid on 25 June 1931 at the Reichsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven,[5] under construction number 123. The class comprised Deutschland, Hannover, Pommern, Schlesien, and Schleswig-Holstein. As a result, they were the last ships of that type built for the German Navy. [5], The Reichsmarine's oldest battleship, Preussen, was laid down in 1902 and could therefore be replaced legally in 1922. The armored deck was improved as well, and some places had up to 70 mm thickness. [19] Due to their heavy armament of six 28 cm (11 in) guns, high speed and long cruising range, the class was more capable of high seas operation than the old pre-dreadnought battleships they replaced;[20] for this reason, they were referred to as "pocket battleships", particularly in the British press. An October 1928 attempt by the Communist Party of Germany to initiate a referendum against the construction failed. [40] Her first operation during World War II was a commerce raiding operation into the southern Atlantic Ocean that started in late October 1940. On 3 May she struck a mine outside Swinemünde; the following day she was scuttled by her crew in shallow water. [27] One of the most significant changes visually was the trunking of the two forward funnels into a single larger smoke stack. The class comprised Deutschland, Hannover, Pommern, Schlesien, and Schleswig-Holstein. The Treaty of Versailles permitted Germany to retain several old battleships for coastal defense, including the four Deutschland-class ships. Deutschland Class Battleship (1904) From The Dreadnought Project. The Reichsmarine eventually opted for 28 cm (11 in) guns to avoid provoking the Allies and to ease pressures on the design staff. eds. The Reichsmarine had decided that the new ships would be armed with two triple turrets mounting 28 cm guns. The three designs prepared in 1925—"II/30", "IV/30", and "V/30"—were armed with six 30 cm (12 in) guns with varying levels of armor protection. Their flight deck would have been only 10 meters (33 ft) shorter than that of the Hipper-class heavy cruiser Seydlitz, which had been prepared for conversion in 1942, and they would still have attained 28 knots. [13] Each set was controlled by transmissions built by AG Vulcan. Certain elements not to scale. [45][46], Admiral Graf Spee conducted extensive training in the Baltic and Atlantic before participating in five non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War in 1936–1938. [12] The three remaining pre-dreadnought battleships were modernized in the 1920s,[24] which included the replacement of the ships' 17 cm guns with 15 cm (5.9 in) pieces. 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